Technical report| Volume 18, ISSUE 6, P770-773, June 2011

Titanium vs Carbon Coated Ceramic Breast Tissue Marker Clips:

3T MR Susceptibility Artifact and Local Signal Disturbance
Published:March 21, 2011DOI:

      Rationale and Objectives

      Spectroscopy signal of a breast lesion may be disrupted by the presence of metal from a biopsy marking clip. This study compares the size of magnetic resonance (MR) susceptibility artifacts and degree of local spectroscopy signal disturbance created by conventional titanium tissue marker clips to that of a novel carbon coated ceramic breast tissue marker clip.

      Materials and Methods

      Five breast tissue marker clips were embedded in a gelatin breast phantom. The phantoms were imaged on a 3T MR scanner, and three-dimensional T1-weighted gradient echo images were obtained. The area of the susceptibility artifact was calculated and compared for each clip. Single voxel point resolved spectroscopy spectra (SVS) were acquired for three ceramic clips aligned along the superoinferior, anteroposterior, and left-right axes, respectively. Measurements were repeated for an area of pure gelatin and for one similarly sized titanium clip located arbitrarily in the main field. Water spectra were obtained, and line widths and areas of the water peaks were compared.


      All five clips were easily visible on MR imaging. The ceramic marker clip produced less apparent artifact when compared with the metallic clips. Spectral analysis demonstrated local frequency shifts around all clips. Line widths varied from 7 to 92 Hz in the voxels on and around the titanium clip and from 4to 18 Hz around the ceramic clips.


      The ceramic breast tissue marker clip produced less susceptibility artifact and less line broadening on 3T MR imaging than conventional titanium clips. This tissue marker may reduce artifact and improve consistency of breast MR spectroscopy.

      Key Words

      To read this article in full you will need to make a payment

      Purchase one-time access:

      Academic & Personal: 24 hour online accessCorporate R&D Professionals: 24 hour online access
      One-time access price info
      • For academic or personal research use, select 'Academic and Personal'
      • For corporate R&D use, select 'Corporate R&D Professionals'


      Subscribe to Academic Radiology
      Already a print subscriber? Claim online access
      Already an online subscriber? Sign in
      Institutional Access: Sign in to ScienceDirect


        • Saslow D.
        • Boetes C.
        • Burke W.
        • et al.
        American Cancer Society guidelines for breast screening with MRI as adjunct to mammography.
        Cancer J Clin. 2007; 57: 75-89
        • Manton D.J.
        • Chaturvedi A.
        • Hubbard A.
        • et al.
        Neoadjuvant chemotherapy in breast cancer: early response prediction with quantitative MR imaging and spectroscopy.
        Br J Cancer. 2006; 94: 427-435
        • Kvistad K.A.
        • Bakken I.J.
        • Gribberstad I.S.
        • et al.
        Characterization of neoplastic and normal human breast tissues with in vivo 1H spectroscopy: initial results.
        Radiology. 2001; 220: 40-46
        • Jagannathan N.R.
        • Kumar M.
        • Seanu V.
        • et al.
        Evaluation of total choline from in vivo volume localized proton MR spectroscopy to its response to neoadjuvant chemotherapy in locally advanced breast cancer.
        Br J Cancer. 2001; 84: 1016-1022
        • Haddadin I.S.
        • MacIntosh A.
        • Meisamy S.
        • et al.
        Metabolite quantification and high field MRS in breast cancer.
        NMR Biomed. 2009; 22: 65-76
        • Matsuura H.
        • Takashi I.
        • Konno H.
        • et al.
        Quantification of susceptibility artifacts produced on high field magnetic resonance images by various biomaterials used for neurosurgical implants.
        J Neurosurg. 2002; 97: 1472-1475
        • Soher B.J.
        • Young K.
        • Govindaraju V.
        • et al.
        Automated spectral analysis III: Application to in vivo proton MR spectroscopy and spectroscopic imaging.
        Magn Reson Med. 1998; 40: 822-831
        • Genson C.C.
        • Blane C.E.
        • Helvie M.A.
        • et al.
        Effects on breast MRI of artifacts caused by metallic tissue marker clips.
        AJR Am J Roentgenol. 2007; 188: 372-376
        • Allkemper T.
        • Schwindt W.
        • Maintz D.
        • et al.
        Sensitivity of T2-weighted FSE sequences towards physiologic iron depositions in normal brains at 1.5 and 3.0 T.
        Eur Radiol. 2004; 14: 1000-1004
        • Graf H.
        • Lauer U.A.
        • Berger A.
        • et al.
        RF artifacts caused by metallic implants or instruments which get more prominent at 3T: an in vitro study.
        Magn Reson Imaging. 2005; 23: 439-493