Emergency Radiology Elective Improves Second-Year Medical Students' Perceived Confidence and Knowledge of Appropriate Imaging Utilization

      Rationale and Objectives

      Given recent advances in and wider availability of complex imaging, physicians are expected to understand imaging appropriateness. We introduced second-year medical students to the American College of Radiology Appropriateness Criteria (ACR-AC) in an interactive case-based elective to demonstrate their use in imaging for common emergency department clinical complaints.

      Materials and Methods

      Prospective pre- and post-test design assessed second-year medical students' performance on case-based knowledge applications and self-assessed confidence related to ACR-AC guidelines compared to second-year students participating in a different concurrent radiology elective. Students participated in a 3-day elective covering the ACR-AC, comparative effective imaging, and risks associated with imaging radiation exposure, with outcomes of perceived confidence using a 5-point Likert scale and knowledge of ACR-AC using case-based multiple choice questions. Analysis included computing mean scores and assessing effect sizes for changes in knowledge.


      Before the elective, 24 students scored an average of 3.45 questions correct of 8 (43.1%). On course completion, students scored an average of 5.3 questions correct of the same questions (66.3%) (P < .001; effect size [Cohen's d] = 1.3940. In the comparison group, 12 students scored an average of 3.08 questions (38.5%) correctly pretest and 3.09 questions (38.6%) correctly post-test (P > .85; effect size = 0.008). Students' confidence in ordering appropriate imaging improved nearly 2-fold from a range of 1.9 to 3.2 (on a scale of 1.0 to 5.0) to a range of 3.7 to 4.5.


      Following a short radiology elective, second-year medical students improved their knowledge of appropriate image utilization and perceived awareness of the indications, contraindications, and effects of radiation exposure related to medical imaging.

      Key Words

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