Quantification of Mouse Renal Perfusion Using Arterial Spin Labeled MRI at 1 T

      Rationale and Objectives

      Quantitative measurement of renal perfusion in murine models provides important information on the organ physiology and disease states. The 1-T desktop magnetic resonance imaging has a small footprint and a self-contained fringe field. This resultant flexibility in siting makes the system ideal for preclinical imaging research. Our objective was to evaluate the capability of the 1-T desktop magnetic resonance imaging to measure mouse renal perfusion without the administration of exogenous contrast agents.

      Materials and Methods

      We implemented a flow-sensitive alternating inversion recovery (FAIR)-based arterial spin labeling sequence with a mouse volume coil on a 1-T desktop magnetic resonance scanner. The validity of the implementation was tested by comparing obtained renal perfusion results with literature values for normal mice and challenging the technique with mice treated with furosemide, a blood vessel vasoconstrictor drug.


      The measured cortical and medullary perfusions were quantified to be 402 ± 95 and 184 ± 52 mL/100 g/min, respectively, in agreement with literature values. The ratio of cortical to medullary renal blood flow was between 2 and 3 and was independent of the mouse weight. As expected, upon furosemide injection, a decrease (~50%) in cortical perfusion was observed in the mice population, at 1 hour post injection compared to baseline (P < 0.0001), which returned to baseline after 24 hours (P = 0.68).


      We reported the successful application of FAIR-based arterial spin labeling for noncontrast perfusion measurement of mouse kidneys using a 1-T desktop scanner. The easy implementation of FAIR sequence on a 1-T desktop scanner offers the potential for longitudinal perfusion studies in limited access areas such as behind the barrier in mouse facilities and in multimodality preclinical imaging laboratories without the administration of exogenous contrast agents.

      Key Words

      Abbreviations and Acronyms:

      ASL (arterial spin labeling), CI (confidence interval), FAIR (flow-sensitive alternating inversion recovery), Gd (gadolinium), IP (intraperitoneal), MR (magnetic resonance), MRI (magnetic resonance imaging), PET (positron emission tomography), PI (post injection), RBF (renal blood flow), ROI (region of interest), SNR (signal-to-noise ratio), TI (inversion time), T1 (longitudinal relaxation time)
      To read this article in full you will need to make a payment

      Purchase one-time access:

      Academic & Personal: 24 hour online accessCorporate R&D Professionals: 24 hour online access
      One-time access price info
      • For academic or personal research use, select 'Academic and Personal'
      • For corporate R&D use, select 'Corporate R&D Professionals'


      Subscribe to Academic Radiology
      Already a print subscriber? Claim online access
      Already an online subscriber? Sign in
      Institutional Access: Sign in to ScienceDirect


        • Hensley C.T.
        • Faubert B.
        • Yuan Q.
        • et al.
        Metabolic heterogeneity in human lung tumors.
        Cell. 2016; 164: 681-694
        • Essock-Burns E.
        • Lupo J.M.
        • Cha S.
        • et al.
        Assessment of perfusion MRI-derived parameters in evaluating and predicting response to antiangiogenic therapy in patients with newly diagnosed glioblastoma.
        Neuro Oncol. 2011; 13: 119-131
        • Thomsen H.S.
        • Morcos S.K.
        • Almén T.
        • et al.
        Nephrogenic systemic fibrosis and gadolinium-based contrast media: updated ESUR Contrast Medium Safety Committee guidelines.
        Eur Radiol. 2013; 23: 307-318
        • Sherry A.D.
        • Caravan P.
        • Lenkinski R.E.
        Primer on gadolinium chemistry.
        J Magn Reson Imaging. 2009; 30: 1240-1248
        • McDonald R.J.
        • McDonald J.S.
        • Kallmes D.F.
        • et al.
        Intracranial gadolinium deposition after contrast-enhanced MR imaging.
        Radiology. 2015; 275: 772-782
        • Kanda T.
        • Fukusato T.
        • Matsuda M.
        • et al.
        Gadolinium-based contrast agent accumulates in the brain even in subjects without severe renal dysfunction: evaluation of autopsy brain specimens with inductively coupled plasma mass spectroscopy.
        Radiology. 2015; 276: 228-232
        • Monet P.
        • Franc J.
        • Brasseur A.
        • et al.
        Arterial spin labeling: state of the art.
        J Radiol. 2009; 90: 1031-1037
        • Dai W.
        • Garcia D.
        • de Bazelaire C.
        • et al.
        Continuous flow-driven inversion for arterial spin labeling using pulsed radio frequency and gradient fields.
        Magn Reson Med. 2008; 60: 1488-1497
        • Duhamel G.
        • Prevost V.
        • Girard O.M.
        • et al.
        High-resolution mouse kidney perfusion imaging by pseudo-continuous arterial spin labeling at 11.75T.
        Magn Reson Med. 2014; 71: 1186-1196
        • Leithner C.
        • Gertz K.
        • Schröck H.
        • et al.
        A flow sensitive alternating inversion recovery (FAIR)-MRI protocol to measure hemispheric cerebral blood flow in a mouse stroke model.
        Exp Neurol. 2008; 210: 118-127
        • Tibiletti M.
        • Bianchi A.
        • Stiller D.
        • et al.
        Pulmonary perfusion quantification with flow-sensitive inversion recovery (FAIR) UTE MRI in small animal imaging.
        NMR Biomed. 2016; 29: 1791-1799
        • Rajendran R.
        • Lew S.K.
        • Yong C.X.
        • et al.
        Quantitative mouse renal perfusion using arterial spin labeling.
        NMR Biomed. 2013; 26: 1225-1232
        • Wang J.
        • Zhang Y.
        • Yang X.
        • et al.
        Hemodynamic effects of furosemide on renal perfusion as evaluated by ASL-MRI.
        Acad Radiol. 2012; 19: 1194-1200
        • Alsop D.C.
        • Detre J.A.
        Reduced transit-time sensitivity in noninvasive magnetic resonance imaging of human cerebral blood flow.
        J Cereb Blood Flow Metab. 1996; 16: 1236-1249
        • De Bazelaire C.
        • Rofsky N.M.
        • Duhamel G.
        • et al.
        Arterial spin labeling blood flow magnetic resonance imaging for the characterization of metastatic renal cell carcinoma.
        Acad Radiol. 2005; 12: 347-357
        • Schor-Bardach R.
        • Alsop D.C.
        • Pedrosa I.
        • et al.
        Does arterial spin-labeling MR Imaging-measured tumor perfusion correlate with renal cell cancer response to antiangiogenic therapy in a mouse model?.
        Radiology. 2009; 251: 731-742
        • Zhang X.
        • Petersen E.T.
        • Ghariq E.
        • et al.
        In vivo blood T-1 measurements at 1.5 T, 3 T, and 7 T.
        Magn Reson Med. 2013; 70: 1082-1086