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Automatic Detection and Segmentation of Breast Cancer on MRI Using Mask R-CNN Trained on Non–Fat-Sat Images and Tested on Fat-Sat Images

Published:December 11, 2020DOI:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.acra.2020.12.001

      Rationale and Objectives

      Computer-aided methods have been widely applied to diagnose lesions on breast magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). The first step was to identify abnormal areas. A deep learning Mask Regional Convolutional Neural Network (R-CNN) was implemented to search the entire set of images and detect suspicious lesions.

      Materials and Methods

      Two DCE-MRI datasets were used, 241 patients acquired using non–fat-sat sequence for training, and 98 patients acquired using fat-sat sequence for testing. All patients have confirmed unilateral mass cancers. The tumor was segmented using fuzzy c-means clustering algorithm to serve as the ground truth. Mask R-CNN was implemented with ResNet-101 as the backbone. The neural network output the bounding boxes and the segmented tumor for evaluation using the Dice Similarity Coefficient (DSC). The detection performance, and the trade-off between sensitivity and specificity, was analyzed using free response receiver operating characteristic.

      Results

      When the precontrast and subtraction image of both breasts were used as input, the false positive from the heart and normal parenchymal enhancements could be minimized. The training set had 1469 positive slices (containing lesion) and 9135 negative slices. In 10-fold cross-validation, the mean accuracy = 0.86 and DSC = 0.82. The testing dataset had 1568 positive and 7264 negative slices, with accuracy = 0.75 and DSC = 0.79. When the obtained per-slice results were combined, 240 of 241 (99.5%) lesions in the training and 98 of 98 (100%) lesions in the testing datasets were identified.

      Conclusion

      Deep learning using Mask R-CNN provided a feasible method to search breast MRI, localize, and segment lesions. This may be integrated with other artificial intelligence algorithms to develop a fully automatic breast MRI diagnostic system.

      Key Words

      Abbreviations:

      3D-FLASH (three-dimensional fast low angle shot), AFROC (Alternative Free-response ROC), AI (Artificial Intelligence), BI-RADS (Breast Imaging Reporting and Data System), CAD (Computer-Aided Diagnosis), CNN (Convolutional Neural Network), DCE (Dynamic Contrast-Enhanced), DSC (Dice Similarity Coefficient), FCM (Fuzzy C-Means), FPN (Feature Pyramid Network), FROC (Free-response ROC), IoU (Intersection over Union), MIP (Maximum Intensity Projection), TE (Echo Time), TR (Repetition Time), R-CNN (Regional Convolutional Neural Network), ROC (Receiver Operating Characteristic), ROI (Region Of Interest)
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