Pathophysiology and Imaging Findings of COVID-19 Infection: An Organ-system Based Review

Published:February 03, 2021DOI:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.acra.2021.01.022
      Background: COVID-19 commonly presents with upper respiratory symptoms; however, studies have shown that SARS-CoV-2 infection affects multiple organ systems. Here, we review the pathophysiology and imaging characteristics of SARS-CoV-2 infection in organ systems throughout the body and explore commonalities.
      Objective: Familiarity with the underlying pathophysiology and imaging characteristics is essential for the radiologist to recognize these findings in patients with COVID-19 infection. Though pulmonary findings are the most prevalent presentation, COVID-19 may have multiple manifestations and recognition of the extrapulmonary manifestations is especially important because of the potential serious and long-term effects of COVID-19 on multiple organ systems.

      KEY WORDS

      Abbreviations:

      COVID-19 (Coronavirus-19), ACE2 (Angiotensin-converting enzyme 2), IL (Interleukin), TNF (Tumor necrosis factor), CT (Computed tomography), MRI (Magnetic resonance imaging), MRA (Magnetic resonance angiography), US (Ultrasound), PE (Pulmonary embolism), AKI (Acute kidney injury), RAAS (Renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system), MCA (Middle cerebral artery), PCA (Posterior cerebral artery), PICA (Posterior inferior cerebral artery), DIC (Diffuse intravascular coagulation), MIS-C (Multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children), MIS-A (Multisystem inflammatory syndrome in adults), CRP (C-reactive protein), RT-PCR (Reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction)
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