Ensuring a Smooth Transition for Trainees Returning from Parental Leave - A Guide for Program Directors

      Transitioning from parental leave during radiology residency training can be a time of stress and uncertainty. However, there are ways that program directors can help make the transition smoother and less overwhelming. Trainees report numerous stressors upon returning from leave involving childcare, lactation concerns and logistics, and discrimination. Program directors can help alleveate these stressors by counseling trainees returning from parental leave and providing reseources and a supportive enviroment. This article provides a structured frame work with tool for programs directors to ensure the transition from parental leave back to training is a smooth one.

      Key Words

      To read this article in full you will need to make a payment

      Purchase one-time access:

      Academic & Personal: 24 hour online accessCorporate R&D Professionals: 24 hour online access
      One-time access price info
      • For academic or personal research use, select 'Academic and Personal'
      • For corporate R&D use, select 'Corporate R&D Professionals'


      Subscribe to Academic Radiology
      Already a print subscriber? Claim online access
      Already an online subscriber? Sign in
      Institutional Access: Sign in to ScienceDirect


        • Juengst SB
        • Royston A
        • Huang I
        • et al.
        Family leave and return-to-work experiences of physician mothers.
        JAMA Netw Open. 2019; 2e1913054
        • Porter KK
        • Bass RZ
        • Morgan DE
        • et al.
        Creating to culture of support radiology resident mothers.
        JACR. 2018; 15: 1765-1767
        • Stack SW
        • Jagsi R
        • Sybil BJ
        • et al.
        Maternity leave in residency: a multicenter study of determinants and wellness outcomes.
        Acad Med. 2019; 94: 1738-1745
        • Robbins JB
        • Shubeck SP
        • Kanters AE
        • et al.
        Lactation policy and resources for trainees in the department of radiology.
        J Am Coll Radiol. 2019; 16: 365-368
        • Harrington SG
        • Wood M
        • Porter KK
        • et al.
        Promoting lactation support: challenges and solutions to supporting breast feeding radiologists.
        Acad Radiol. 2020; (S1076-6332(20)30644-9)
      1. Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education. ACGME Common Program requirements (Residency). Available at Common Program Requirements ( Accessed March 21, 2021

        • Dodelzon K
        • Shah S
        • Schweitzer A.
        Supporting a Work-Life Balance for Radiology Resident Parents.
        Acad Radiol. 2021; 28: 243-249
        • Dyrbye LN
        • West CP
        • Satele D
        • et al.
        Burnout among U.S. medical students, residents, and early career physicians relative to the general U.S. population.
        Acad Med. 2014; 89: 443-451
        • Raybon C
        • Jordan SG
        • Deitte LA
        • et al.
        In Seas of change, a call to action: 2021 American Board of medical specialties policy on parental, caregiver, medical leave during training.
        Acad Radiol. 2021; (S1076-6332(21)00104-5. doi:Epub ahead of print)
        • Humphries LS
        • Lyon S
        • Garza R
        • et al.
        Parental leave policies in graduate medical education: a systemic review.
        Am J Surg. 2017; 214: 634-639
        • van Dis J.STUDENTJAMA
        Residency training and pregnancy.
        JAMA. 2004; 291: 636
        • Magudia K
        • Ng TSC
        • Bick AG
        • et al.
        Parenting while in training: a comprehensive needs assessment of residents and fellows.
        J Grad Med Educ. 2020; 12: 162-167
      2. The American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists. Practice Bulletin Prediction and Prevention of Preterm Birth. Number 130. 2012, Reaffirmed 2016. Available at Accessed March 18, 2021.

        • The American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists
        ACOG Committee Opinion Screening for Perinatal Depression. Number 757.
        2018 (Available at) (Accessed March 18, 2021)
        • Sackett JF.
        Pregnant pause.
        Invest Radiol. 1987; 22: 436
      3. American Board of Radiology Website. Core Exam. Available at: Accessed April 7, 2021