Advertisement

Photorealistic Depiction of Intracranial Tumors Using Cinematic Rendering of Volumetric 3T MRI Data

Published:January 12, 2022DOI:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.acra.2021.12.017

      Rationale and Objectives

      Cinematic Rendering (CR) incorporates a complex lightning model that creates photorealistic models from isotropic 3D imaging data. The utility of CR in depicting volumetric MRI data for pre-therapeutic planning is discussed, with intracranial tumors as a demonstrative example.

      Materials and Methods

      We present a series of Cinematically Rendered intracranial tumors and discuss their utility in multidisciplinary pre-therapeutic evaluation. Isotropic, high-resolution, volumetric MRI data was collected, and CR was performed utilizing a proprietary application, “Anatomy Education” Siemens, Munich, Germany.

      Results

      Discrimination of cortex to white matter, brain surface to vessels, subarachnoid space to cortex and skull to intracranial structures was achieved and optimized by using various display settings on the Anatomy education application. Progressive removal of tissue layers allowed for a comprehensive assessment of the entire region of interest. Complex, small structures were demonstrated in very high detail. The depth and architecture of the sulci was appreciated in a format that more closely mimicked gross pathology than traditional imaging modalities. With appropriate display settings, the relationship of the cortical surface to the adjacent vasculature was also delineated.

      Conclusion

      CR depicts the anatomic location of brain tumors in a format that depicts the relative proximity of adjacent structures in all dimensions and degrees of freedom. This allows for better conceptualization of the pathology and greater ease of communication between radiologists and other clinical teams, especially in the context of pretherapeutic planning.

      Key Words

      Abbreviations:

      CT (computed tomography), CR (cinematic rendering), MRI (Magnetic resonance imaging), MIP (Maximum intensity projection), VR (volume rendering)
      To read this article in full you will need to make a payment

      Purchase one-time access:

      Academic & Personal: 24 hour online accessCorporate R&D Professionals: 24 hour online access
      One-time access price info
      • For academic or personal research use, select 'Academic and Personal'
      • For corporate R&D use, select 'Corporate R&D Professionals'

      Subscribe:

      Subscribe to Academic Radiology
      Already a print subscriber? Claim online access
      Already an online subscriber? Sign in
      Institutional Access: Sign in to ScienceDirect

      REFERENCES

        • Hu LS
        • Hawkins-Daarud A
        • Wang L
        • Li J
        • Swanson KR
        Imaging of intratumoral heterogeneity in high-grade glioma.
        Cancer Lett. 2020; 477: 97-106https://doi.org/10.1016/j.canlet.2020.02.025
        • Allen JS
        • Damasio H
        • Grabowski TJ
        Normal neuroanatomical variation in the human brain: an MRI-volumetric study.
        Am J Phys Anthropol. 2002; 118: 341-358https://doi.org/10.1002/ajpa.10092
        • Wang D
        • Ma D
        • Wong ML
        • Wáng YX
        Recent advances in surgical planning & navigation for tumor biopsy and resection.
        Quant Imaging Med Surg. 2015; 5: 640-648https://doi.org/10.3978/j.issn.2223-4292.2015.10.03
        • Wang LL
        • Leach JL
        • Breneman JC
        • McPherson CM
        • Gaskill-Shipley MF
        Critical role of imaging in the neurosurgical and radiotherapeutic management of brain tumors.
        Radiographics. 2014; 34: 702-721https://doi.org/10.1148/rg.343130156
        • Dho YS
        • Lee D
        • Ha T
        • et al.
        Clinical application of patient-specific 3D printing brain tumor model production system for neurosurgery.
        Sci Rep. 2021; 11: 7005https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-021-86546-y
        • Schoenhagen P
        • Zimmermann M
        • Falkner J
        Advanced 3-D analysis, client-server systems, and cloud computing-Integration of cardiovascular imaging data into clinical workflows of transcatheter aortic valve replacement.
        Cardiovasc Diagn Ther. 2013; 3: 80-92https://doi.org/10.3978/j.issn.2223-3652.2013.02.08
        • Lakhani DA
        • Yuan F
        • Deib G
        Photorealistic depiction of intracranial arteriovenous malformation using cinematic rendering of volumetric MRI data for presurgical planning and patient education.
        J Neurointerv Surg. 2021; https://doi.org/10.1136/neurintsurg-2021-018281
        • Wei L
        • Zhu Y
        • Deng J
        • et al.
        Visualization of Thrombus Enhancement on Thin-Slab Maximum Intensity Projection of CT angiography: an imaging sign for predicting stroke source and thrombus compositions.
        Radiology. 2021; 298: 374-381https://doi.org/10.1148/radiol.2020201548
        • Noguera JM
        • Jiménez JR
        Mobile volume rendering: past, present and future.
        IEEE Trans Vis Comput Graph. 2016; 22: 1164-1178https://doi.org/10.1109/TVCG.2015.2430343
        • Soyer P
        Cinematic rendering: when virtuality comes true.
        Diagn Interv Imaging. 2019; 100: 465-466https://doi.org/10.1016/j.diii.2019.06.005
        • Eid M
        • De Cecco CN
        • Nance JW
        • et al.
        Cinematic rendering in CT: a novel, lifelike 3D visualization technique.
        AJR Am J Roentgenol. 2017; 209: 370-379https://doi.org/10.2214/AJR.17.17850
        • Fritz J
        • Ahlawat S
        High-resolution three-dimensional and cinematic rendering mr neurography.
        Radiology. 2018; 288: 25https://doi.org/10.1148/radiol.2018180243
        • Comaniciu D
        • Engel K
        • Georgescu B
        • Mansi T
        Shaping the future through innovations: from medical imaging to precision medicine.
        Med Image Anal. 2016; 33: 19-26https://doi.org/10.1016/j.media.2016.06.016
        • Fishman EK
        • Ney DR
        • Heath DG
        • Corl FM
        • Horton KM
        • Johnson PT
        Volume rendering versus maximum intensity projection in CT angiography: what works best, when, and why.
        Radiographics. 2006; 26: 905-922https://doi.org/10.1148/rg.263055186
        • Baldi D
        • Tramontano L
        • Punzo B
        • Orsini M
        • Cavaliere C
        CT cinematic rendering for glomus jugulare tumor with intracranial extension.
        Quant Imaging Med Surg. 2020; 10: 522-526https://doi.org/10.21037/qims.2019.12.13
        • Glemser PA
        • Engel K
        • Simons D
        • Steffens J
        • Schlemmer HP
        • Orakcioglu B
        A new approach for photorealistic visualization of rendered computed tomography images.
        World Neurosurg. 2018; 114: e283-e292https://doi.org/10.1016/j.wneu.2018.02.174
        • Fishman EK
        CT scanning and data post-processing with 3D and 4D reconstruction: are we there yet?.
        Diagn Interv Imaging. 2020; 101: 691-692https://doi.org/10.1016/j.diii.2020.10.005
        • Blum A
        • Gillet R
        • Rauch A
        • et al.
        3D reconstructions, 4D imaging and postprocessing with CT in musculoskeletal disorders: past, present and future.
        Diagn Interv Imaging. 2020; 101: 693-705https://doi.org/10.1016/j.diii.2020.09.008
        • Rowe SP
        • Chu LC
        • Recht HS
        • Lin CT
        • Fishman EK
        Black-blood cinematic rendering: a new method for cardiac CT intraluminal visualization.
        J Cardiovasc Comput Tomogr. 2020; 14: 272-274https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jcct.2019.09.019
        • Prabhu SP
        3D modeling and advanced visualization of the pediatric brain, neck, and spine.
        Magn Reson Imaging Clin N Am. 2021; 29: 655-666https://doi.org/10.1016/j.mric.2021.06.014
        • Claassen H
        • Busch C
        • May MS
        • et al.
        Cor triatriatum sinistrum combined with changes in atrial septum and right atrium in a 60-year-old woman.
        Medicina (Kaunas). 2021; 57https://doi.org/10.3390/medicina57080777
        • Gascho D
        • Thali MJ
        • Martinez RM
        • Bolliger SA
        Cinematic rendering of a burst sagittal suture caused by an occipito-frontal gunshot wound.
        Forensic Sci Med Pathol. 2021; 17: 726-729https://doi.org/10.1007/s12024-021-00387-9
        • Zimmerman SL
        • Rowe SP
        • Fishman EK
        Cinematic rendering of CT angiography for visualization of complex vascular anatomy after hybrid endovascular aortic aneurysm repair.
        Emerg Radiol. 2021; 28: 839-843https://doi.org/10.1007/s10140-021-01922-5
        • Gehrsitz P
        • Rompel O
        • Schöber M
        • et al.
        Cinematic rendering in mixed-reality holograms: a new 3D preoperative planning tool in pediatric heart surgery.
        Front Cardiovasc Med. 2021; 8633611https://doi.org/10.3389/fcvm.2021.633611
        • Bueno MR
        • Estrela C
        • Granjeiro JM
        • Estrela MRA
        • Azevedo BC
        • Diogenes A
        Cone-beam computed tomography cinematic rendering: clinical, teaching and research applications.
        Braz Oral Res. 2021; 35: e024https://doi.org/10.1590/1807-3107bor-2021.vol35.0024
        • Binder JS
        • Scholz M
        • Ellmann S
        • et al.
        cinematic rendering in anatomy: a crossover study comparing a novel 3D reconstruction technique to conventional computed tomography.
        Anat Sci Educ. 2021; 14: 22-31https://doi.org/10.1002/ase.1989
        • Jhala K
        • Madan R
        • Hammer M
        A pictorial review of lung torsion using 3D CT cinematic rendering.
        Emerg Radiol. 2021; 28: 171-176https://doi.org/10.1007/s10140-020-01805-1
        • Lugo-Fagundo C
        • Ahn H
        • O'Brien-Coon D
        • Fishman EK
        The role of cinematic rendering in pre-operative planning of a thoracodorsal artery perforator flap (TDAP) phalloplasty: a case study.
        BJR Case Rep. 2019; 520180084https://doi.org/10.1259/bjrcr.20180084
        • Elshafei M
        • Binder J
        • Baecker J
        • et al.
        Comparison of cinematic rendering and computed tomography for speed and comprehension of surgical anatomy.
        JAMA Surg. 2019; 154: 738-744https://doi.org/10.1001/jamasurg.2019.1168
        • Li K
        • Yan R
        • Ma H
        • Zhang DF
        • Ding Y
        • Li ZH
        Value of the cinematic rendering from volumetric computed tomography data in evaluating the relationship between deep soft tissue sarcomas of the extremities and adjacent major vessels: a preliminary study.
        J Comput Assist Tomogr. 2019; 43: 386-391https://doi.org/10.1097/RCT.0000000000000852
        • Lin CT
        • Rowe S
        • Chu LC
        • Recht H
        • Fishman EK
        Cinematic rendering enhancements to virtual bronchoscopy: assessment of emergent tracheal pathology.
        Emerg Radiol. 2021; 28: 193-199https://doi.org/10.1007/s10140-020-01816-y
        • Shelmerdine SC
        • Sebire NJ
        • Calder AD
        • Arthurs OJ
        Three-dimensional cinematic rendering of fetal skeletal dysplasia using postmortem computed tomography.
        Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol. 2021; 57: 659-660https://doi.org/10.1002/uog.23140