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Visualization and Validation of The Microstructures in The Airway Wall in vivo Using Diffractive Optical Coherence Tomography

  • Author Footnotes
    # These authors have contributed equally to this work
    Jeffrey Thiboutot
    Footnotes
    # These authors have contributed equally to this work
    Affiliations
    Division of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, School of Medicine, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland
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  • Author Footnotes
    # These authors have contributed equally to this work
    Wu Yuan
    Footnotes
    # These authors have contributed equally to this work
    Affiliations
    Department of Biomedical Engineering, School of Medicine, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland

    Department of Biomedical Engineering and Shun Hing Institute of Advanced Engineering, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong SAR, China
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  • Hyeon-cheol Park
    Affiliations
    Department of Biomedical Engineering, School of Medicine, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland
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  • Dawei Li
    Affiliations
    Department of Biomedical Engineering, School of Medicine, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland
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  • Jeffrey Loube
    Affiliations
    Department of Environmental Health and Engineering, Bloomberg School of Public Health, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland
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  • Wayne Mitzner
    Affiliations
    Division of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, School of Medicine, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland

    Department of Environmental Health and Engineering, Bloomberg School of Public Health, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland

    Department of Anesthesiology/Critical Care Medicine, School of Medicine, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland
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  • Lonny Yarmus
    Affiliations
    Division of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, School of Medicine, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland
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  • Author Footnotes
    # These authors have contributed equally to this work
    Xingde Li
    Footnotes
    # These authors have contributed equally to this work
    Affiliations
    Department of Biomedical Engineering, School of Medicine, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland
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  • Author Footnotes
    # These authors have contributed equally to this work
    Robert H. Brown
    Correspondence
    Address correspondence to: R H. B.
    Footnotes
    # These authors have contributed equally to this work
    Affiliations
    Division of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, School of Medicine, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland

    Department of Environmental Health and Engineering, Bloomberg School of Public Health, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland

    Department of Anesthesiology/Critical Care Medicine, School of Medicine, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland
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  • Author Footnotes
    # These authors have contributed equally to this work
Published:March 10, 2022DOI:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.acra.2022.01.008

      Rationale and Objectives

      At present, there is no available method to study the in vivo microstructures of the airway wall (epithelium, smooth muscle, adventitia, basement membrane, glands, cartilage). Currently, we rely on ex vivo histologic evaluation of airway biopsies. To overcome this obstacle, we have developed an endoscopic ultrahigh-resolution diffractive optical coherence tomography (OCT) system, operating at a wavelength of 800 nm, to non-invasively study the in vivo microstructures of the airway wall. Prior to human study, validation of diffractive OCT's ability to quantitate airway microstructural components is required.

      Materials and Methods

      To validate and demonstrate the accuracy of this OCT system, we used an ovine model to image small airways (∼ 2 mm in diameter). Histologic samples and correlated OCT images were matched. The cross-sectional area of the airway wall, lumen, and other microstructures were measured and compared.

      Results

      A total of 27 sheep were studied from which we identified 39 paired OCT–histology airway images. We found strong correlations between the OCT and the histology measurements of the airway wall area and the microstructural area measurements of the epithelium, basement membrane, airway smooth muscle, glands, cartilage, and adventitia. The correlations ranged from r=0.61 (p<0.001) for the epithelium to r=0.86 (p<0.001) for the adventitia with the correlation between the OCT and the histology measurements for the entire airway wall of r=0.76 (p<0.001).

      Conclusion

      Given the high degree of correlation, these data validate the ability to acquire and quantify in vivo microscopic level imaging with this newly developed 800nm ultra-high resolution diffractive OCT system.
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