Practical Preventive Strategies for Extravasation of Contrast Media During CT: What the Radiology Team Should Do

Published:March 01, 2022DOI:

      Rationale and Objectives

      This study aimed to assess the effectiveness of practical preventive strategies (i.e., venous vulnerability assessment and prevention scan protocol rules) taken by our radiology team (radiology nurses, radiology technicians, radiologists) on reducing extravasation of contrast media (ECM) during CT.

      Materials and Methods

      A total of 73,931 patients who underwent contrast-enhanced CT scans between January 2013 and December 2019 were retrospectively included. Venous vulnerability assessment by the radiology team began in 2015, and prevention scan protocol rules for the prevention of ECM were added in 2017. We defined each period as follows: 2013–2014, no prevention (Period A); 2015–2016, early prevention (Period B, venous vulnerability assessment only); and 2017–2019: late prevention (Period C, venous vulnerability assessment with prevention scan protocol rules). The incident reports, radiology reports, and medical records of patients in whom ECM occurred were reviewed. We compared the frequency of ECM during each period.


      ECM occurred in 0.39% (292/73,931) of the patients. The frequencies of ECM for Periods A, B, and C were 0.62% (121/19,505), 0.43% (89/20,847), and 0.24% (82/33,579), respectively. There were significant differences in the frequencies of ECM among the three periods (Chi-squared test, p < 0.01).


      Implementation of venous vulnerability assessment and prevention scan protocol rules by a radiology team can be a practical and simple solution to reduce the risk of ECM during CT.

      Key Words

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