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A Step Forward in PET-Based Quantitation of G3 Neuroendocrine Tumor Aggressiveness – The FDZ Score…

Published:March 29, 2022DOI:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.acra.2022.03.001
      Gastroenteropancreatic neuroendocrine neoplasms (GEP-NENs) are the most common primary neuroendocrine tumors in adults (
      • Hauso O
      • Gustafsson BI
      • Kidd M
      • et al.
      Neuroendocrine tumor epidemiology: contrasting Norway and North America.
      ). They can occur anywhere in the body, but most are found in the lungs, appendix, small intestine, rectum, and pancreas. These tumors have a variable presentation that depends on their location within the body. Initially they are asymptomatic and detected incidentally. When they become symptomatic, they produce flushing in the face or neck without sweating, shortness of breath, palpitations, hypertension, fatigue, weakness, abdominal pain, cramping, diarrhea, early satiety, unexplained weight gain or loss, wheezing, and coughing (
      • Hauso O
      • Gustafsson BI
      • Kidd M
      • et al.
      Neuroendocrine tumor epidemiology: contrasting Norway and North America.
      ,
      • Nagtegaal ID
      • Odze RD
      • Klimstra D
      • et al.
      WHO classification of tumours editorial board. The 2019 WHO classification of tumours of the digestive system.
      ,
      • Shah MH
      • Goldner WS
      • Benson AB
      • et al.
      Neuroendocrine and adrenal tumors, version 2.2021, NCCN clinical practice guidelines in oncology.
      ,
      • Schott M
      • Klöppel G
      • Raffel A
      • et al.
      Neuroendocrine neoplasms of the gastrointestinal tract.
      ). Some of these tumors are slow growing while others grow quickly; while some are functional and produce excess hormone, others do not.
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