Advertisement

Breast Cancer Screening: Transgender Discrimination and Marginalization From Pakistan Perspective

      The pervasive stigma about the transgender community is deeply rooted around the globe in all spheres of public life. Health, as a fundamental human right, was enshrined in the Universal Declaration of Human Rights in 1948, Article 25 (

      Universal Declaration of Human Rights. 2021; Available at: https://www.un.org/en/about-us/universal-declaration-of-human-rights. Access date: April 15th, 2022.

      ). However, even after more than 70 years, communities such as transgenders, face the worst form of discrimination while seeking healthcare. Less than 1% of the population of the United States identifies themselves as transgender. This is likely under-reported to avoid social stigma and exclusion (
      • Deutsch MB
      • Radix A
      • Wesp L.
      Breast cancer screening, management, and a review of case study literature in transgender populations.
      ). A member of the transgender community says, "There isn't a trans moment… It's just a presence where there was an absence. We deserve so much more." — Hari Nef, The New Yorker, 2016 (

      Team, K. Inspirational transgender quotes: powerful words of support, acceptance, and love. 2021; Available at: https://kidadl.com/articles/inspirational-transgender-quotes-powerful-words-of-support-acceptance-and-love.

      ).
      To read this article in full you will need to make a payment

      Purchase one-time access:

      Academic & Personal: 24 hour online accessCorporate R&D Professionals: 24 hour online access
      One-time access price info
      • For academic or personal research use, select 'Academic and Personal'
      • For corporate R&D use, select 'Corporate R&D Professionals'

      Subscribe:

      Subscribe to Academic Radiology
      Already a print subscriber? Claim online access
      Already an online subscriber? Sign in
      Institutional Access: Sign in to ScienceDirect

      References

      1. Universal Declaration of Human Rights. 2021; Available at: https://www.un.org/en/about-us/universal-declaration-of-human-rights. Access date: April 15th, 2022.

        • Deutsch MB
        • Radix A
        • Wesp L.
        Breast cancer screening, management, and a review of case study literature in transgender populations.
        Semin Reprod Med. 2017; 35: 434-441https://doi.org/10.1055/s-0037-1606103
      2. Team, K. Inspirational transgender quotes: powerful words of support, acceptance, and love. 2021; Available at: https://kidadl.com/articles/inspirational-transgender-quotes-powerful-words-of-support-acceptance-and-love.

        • de Blok CJM
        • Wiepjes CM
        • Nota NM
        • et al.
        Breast cancer risk in transgender people receiving hormone treatment: nationwide cohort study in the Netherlands.
        BMJ. 2019; 365: l1652https://doi.org/10.1136/bmj.l1652
        • Meggetto O
        • Peirson L
        • Yakubu M
        • et al.
        Breast cancer risk and breast screening for trans people: an integration of 3 systematic reviews.
        CMAJ Open. 2019; 7: E598-E609https://doi.org/10.9778/cmajo.20180028.6
        • Maguen S
        • Shipherd JC
        • Harris HN.
        Providing culturally sensitive care for transgender patients.
        Cogn Behav Pract. 2005; 12: 479-490https://doi.org/10.1016/S1077-7229(05)80075-6
      3. Growing recognition of transgender health.
        Bull World Health Organ. 2016; 94: 790-791https://doi.org/10.2471/BLT.16.021116.8
        • Perchik JD
        • Kennedy J
        • Milner DM
        • et al.
        Promoting progress and learning from mistakes: results of a radiology department LGBTQ inclusion audit.
        Acad Radiol. 2022; (S1076-6332(22)00197-0)https://doi.org/10.1016/j.acra.2022.03.020