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Splenic Size and Volume Measurements in Patients with Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia

      Rationale and Objectives

      To determine which methods of assessment of splenic size most accurately represent the actual spleen volume in patients with Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia (CLL).

      Materials and Methods

      The Abdominal Computed Tomography images of 48 patients with CLL enrolled on a phase 2 clinical trial at two time-points before and after 2-months of continuous acalabrutinib treatment were analyzed. Linear one-dimensional measurements of the spleen were taken in different planes. Two-dimensional and three-dimensional measurements were calculated from the linear measurements using mathematical formulae. The spleen volume was determined by manual segmentation as the ground truth. Data derived were analyzed using Pearson correlation and statistical significance was set at p < 0.05.

      Results

      Among the single-dimensional measurements, the strongest correlation with the segmented splenic volume was the sagittal long axis diameter (LAD) (r = 0.89, p < 0.05), followed closely by Coronal LAD (r = 0.87, p < 0.05) and cephalocaudal length (iwCLL) (r = 0.84, p < 0.05). For the two-dimensional indices, the sum of LAD and short axis diameter (SAD) of the spleen in axial plane showed good correlation with the splenic volume (r = 0.77, p < 0.05). Among the three-dimensional indices, the splenic index (0.523 x axial LAD x axial SAD x coronal height) and a formula for volume (30 + 0.58 x axial LAD x axial SAD x coronal height) had the strongest correlation (both r = 0.92, p < 0.05) with the spleen volume.

      Conclusion

      The three-dimensional formulae showed the strongest correlation with volumetric reference spleen measurement. Among unidimensional measurements, the sagittal LAD had the best correlation with the actual splenic volume. The two-dimensional calculation methods were less reliable.

      Key Words

      Abbreviations:

      BAp (Bland and Altman), CC (Coronal Cephalocaudal), CLL (Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia), CT (Computed Tomography), iwCLL (International Workshop on Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia), LAD (Long Axis Diameter), n (Normalized, PACS, Picture Archiving and Communication System), SAD (Short Axis Diameter)
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