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Diffusion Weighted Imaging of the Abdomen and Pelvis: Recent Technical Advances and Clinical Applications

  • Author Footnotes
    # These authors contributed equally to this work.
    Ting Yang
    Footnotes
    # These authors contributed equally to this work.
    Affiliations
    Department of Radiology, West China Hospital, Sichuan University, Chengdu, China
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  • Author Footnotes
    # These authors contributed equally to this work.
    Ying Li
    Footnotes
    # These authors contributed equally to this work.
    Affiliations
    Department of Radiology, West China Hospital, Sichuan University, Chengdu, China
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  • Author Footnotes
    # These authors contributed equally to this work.
    Zheng Ye
    Footnotes
    # These authors contributed equally to this work.
    Affiliations
    Department of Radiology, West China Hospital, Sichuan University, Chengdu, China
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  • Shan Yao
    Affiliations
    Department of Radiology, West China Hospital, Sichuan University, Chengdu, China
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  • Qing Li
    Affiliations
    MR Collaborations, Siemens Healthcare, Shanghai, China
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  • Author Footnotes
    ⁎ These authors contributed equally to this work.
    Yuan Yuan
    Footnotes
    ⁎ These authors contributed equally to this work.
    Affiliations
    Department of Radiology, West China Hospital, Sichuan University, Chengdu, China
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  • Author Footnotes
    ⁎ These authors contributed equally to this work.
    Bin Song
    Correspondence
    Address correspondence to: Bin Song, MD. Department of Radiology, West China Hospital, Sichuan University, No. 37 Guoxue Alley, Chengdu 610041, China
    Footnotes
    ⁎ These authors contributed equally to this work.
    Affiliations
    Department of Radiology, West China Hospital, Sichuan University, Chengdu, China

    Department of Radiology, Sanya People's Hospital, Sanya, Hainan, China
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  • Author Footnotes
    # These authors contributed equally to this work.
    ⁎ These authors contributed equally to this work.
Published:August 27, 2022DOI:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.acra.2022.07.018
      Diffusion weighted imaging (DWI) serves as one of the most important functional magnetic resonance imaging techniques in abdominal and pelvic imaging. It is designed to reflect the diffusion of water molecules and is particularly sensitive to the malignancies. Yet, the limitations of image distortion and artifacts in single-shot DWI may hamper its widespread use in clinical practice. With recent technical advances in DWI, such as simultaneous multi-slice excitation, computed or reduced field-of-view techniques, as well as advanced shimming methods, it is possible to achieve shorter acquisition time, better image quality, and higher robustness in abdominopelvic DWI. This review discussed the recent advances of each DWI approach, and highlighted its future perspectives in abdominal and pelvic imaging, hoping to familiarize physicians and radiologists with the technical improvements in this field and provide future research directions.

      Key Words

      Abbreviations:

      aDWI (actual DWI), ADC (apparent diffusion coefficient), AF (acceleration factor), AI (artificial intelligence), BH (breath-hold), cDWI (computed DWI), CNR (contrast-to-noise ratio), DKI (diffusion kurtosis imaging), DWI (diffusion weighted imaging), FB (free breathing), FOV (field-of-view), HCC (hepatocellular carcinoma), iShim (integrated slice-by-slice shimming), IVIM (intravoxel incoherent motion), ME (mono-exponential), MRI (magnetic resonance imaging), NT (navigator triggered), OGSE (oscillating gradient spin echo), pTx (parallel transmission), PCa (prostate cancer), PI (parallel imaging), PINS (power independent of the number of slices), rFOV (reduced field-of-view), RESOLVE (readout segmentation of long variable echo trains), RF (radiofrequency), RT (respiratory triggered), ss-DWI (single-shot DWI), SAR (specific absorption rate), SMS (simultaneous multi-slice), SNR (signal-to-noise ratio), TE (echo times)
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