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Diagnostic Value of 18F-FDG PET/CT-Based Radiomics Nomogram in Bone Marrow Involvement of Pediatric Neuroblastoma

Published:September 15, 2022DOI:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.acra.2022.08.021

      Objectives

      To develop and validate an 18F-FDG PET/CT-based radiomics nomogram and evaluate the value of the 18F-FDG PET/CT-based radiomics nomogram for the diagnosis of bone marrow involvement (BMI) in pediatric neuroblastoma.

      Materials and Methods

      A total of 144 patients with neuroblastoma (100 in the training cohort and 44 in the validation cohort) were retrospectively included. The PET/CT images of patients were visually assessed. The results of bone marrow aspirates or biopsies were used as the gold standard for BMI. Radiomics features and conventional PET parameters were extracted using the 3D slicer. Features were selected by the least absolute shrinkage and selection operator regression, and radiomics signature was constructed. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were applied to identify the independent clinical risk factors and construct the clinical model. Other different models, including the conventional PET model, combined PET-clinical model and combined radiomics model, were built using logistic regression. The combined radiomics model was based on clinical factors, conventional PET parameters and radiomics signature, which was presented as a radiomics nomogram. The diagnostic performance of the different models was evaluated by receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves and decision curve analysis (DCA).

      Results

      By visual assessment, BMI was observed in 80 patients. Four conventional PET parameters (SUVmax, SUVmean, metabolic tumor volume, and total lesion glycolysis) were extracted. And 15 radiomics features were selected to build the radiomics signature. The 11q aberration, neuron-specific enolase and vanillylmandelic acid were identified as the independent clinical risk factors to establish the clinical model. The radiomics nomogram incorporating the radiomics signature, the independent clinical risk factors and SUVmean demonstrated the best diagnostic value for identifying BMI, with an area under the curve (AUC) of 0.963 and 0.931 in the training and validation cohorts, respectively. And the DCA demonstrated that the radiomics nomogram was clinically useful.

      Conclusion

      The 18F-FDG PET/CT-based radiomics nomogram which incorporates radiomics signature, independent clinical risk factors and conventional PET parameters could improve the diagnostic performance for BMI of pediatric neuroblastoma without additional medical costs and radiation exposure.

      Key Words

      Abbreviations:

      AUC (area under the curve), BMI (bone marrow involvement), CI (confidence interval), COG (Children's Oncology Group), DCA (decision curve analysis), HVA (homovanillic acid), ICC (intraclass correlation coefficient), INRG (International Neuroblastoma Risk Group), INSS (International Neuroblastoma Staging System), LASSO (least absolute shrinkage and selection operator), LDH (lactate dehydrogenase), MTV (metabolic tumor volume), NA (not available), NSE (neuron-specific enolase), OR (odds ratio), ROC (receiver operating characteristic), ROI (regions of interest), TLG (total lesion glycolysis), VMA (vanillylmandelic acid)
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