Gender Disparities in Academic Radiology Authorship: A 13-Year Review

Published:November 21, 2022DOI:

      Rationale and Objectives

      Underrepresentation of women in many scientific fields has been linked to biases against female-authored publications in peer-reviewed journals, thereby reducing their opportunities for career development and promotions. The objective of this study is to determine the representation of female academic radiologists in four flagship general radiology journals to elucidate gender-specific trends and disparities in academic radiology.

      Materials and Methods

      We analyzed 23,741 peer-reviewed articles published in Radiology, American Journal of Roentgenology, Journal of the American College of Radiology and Academic Radiology from 2007 to 2020. Data abstraction and statistical analysis were performed for author gender, first and last authorship, research funding, and number of citations and grants. Baseline demographics data of academic radiologists was obtained from the Association of American Medical Colleges (AAMC).


      A total of 72.4% of authors were male with 54% of articles were written by a male first author and male last author. When compared with assumed random pairing, there were significantly fewer Male/Female author combinations and more Female/Female author combinations than expected (p<0.01). Over the 13-year time period, the rate of increase in the number of female authors exceeded the rate of increase in women in academic radiology as reported by the AAMC. Female last authors received on average 3.2 less citations than their male counterparts (p=.03). Of manuscripts with last female authors, 31.7% of female last authors were funded compared to 25.9% of last male authors.


      This study showed the increasing numbers and higher productivity of female authors in academic radiology, suggesting progress is being made in overcoming gender disparities.

      Key Words

      To read this article in full you will need to make a payment

      Purchase one-time access:

      Academic & Personal: 24 hour online accessCorporate R&D Professionals: 24 hour online access
      One-time access price info
      • For academic or personal research use, select 'Academic and Personal'
      • For corporate R&D use, select 'Corporate R&D Professionals'


      Subscribe to Academic Radiology
      Already a print subscriber? Claim online access
      Already an online subscriber? Sign in
      Institutional Access: Sign in to ScienceDirect


        • Fuyuno I
        • Cyranoski D.
        Cash for papers: putting a premium on publication.
        Nature. 2006; 441: 792
        • Hirsch JE.
        An index to quantify an individual's scientific research output.
        Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2005; 102: 16569-16572
        • Acuna DE
        • Allesina S
        • Kording KP.
        Future impact: predicting scientific success.
        Nature. 2012; 489: 201-202
        • 2020 Physician Specialty Data Report, Active Physicians by Sex and Specialty
        American Association of Medical Colleges (AAMC).
        2019 (Available at) (Accessed February 23, 2022)
        • Pandharipande PV
        • Mercaldo ND
        • Lietz AP
        • et al.
        Identifying barriers to building a diverse physician workforce: a national survey of the ACR membership.
        J Am Coll Radiol. 2019; 16: 1091-1101
        • Association of American Medical Colleges (AAMC)
        2020 Physician Specialty Data Report.
        2020 (Accessed November 18, 2022)
        • Xiao N
        • Mansukhani NA
        • Mendes de Oliveira DF
        • Kibbe MR
        Association of author gender with sex bias in surgical research.
        JAMA Surg. 2018;
        • Higgins MC
        • Hwang WT
        • Richard C
        • et al.
        Underrepresentation of Women and Minorities in the United States IR Academic Physician Workforce.
        J Vasc Interv Radiol. 2016; 27 (e2): 1837-1844
        • Jagsi R.
        Sexual Harassment in Medicine - #MeToo.
        N Engl J Med. 2018; 378: 209-211
        • Jagsi R
        • Griffith KA
        • DeCastro RA
        • Ubel P.
        Sex, role models, and specialty choices among graduates of US medical schools in 2006-2008.
        J Am Coll Surg. 2014; 218: 345-352
        • Jagsi R
        • Griffith KA
        • Jones R
        • et al.
        Sexual Harassment and Discrimination Experiences of Academic Medical Faculty.
        JAMA. 2016; 315: 2120-2121
        • Jagsi R
        • Tarbell NJ
        • Henault LE
        • et al.
        The representation of women on the editorial boards of major medical journals: a 35-year perspective.
        AMA Arch Intern Med. 2008; 168: 544-548
        • Xiao N
        • Oliveira DFM
        • Gupta R.
        Characterizing the Impact of Women in Academic IR: A 12-Year Analysis.
        J Vasc Interv Radiol. 2018; 29: 1553-1557
        • Association of American Medical Colleges (AAMC)
        The State of Women in Academic Medicine: The Pipeline and Pathways to Leadership.
        Web Page, Washington DC2016 (Accessed November 18, 2022)
        • Goswami AK
        • Kokabi N
        • Khaja MS
        • et al.
        academic radiology in the united states: defining gender disparities in faculty leadership and academic rank.
        Acad Radiol. 2021;
        • Niu BT
        • Nicolaou S
        • Levine D
        • et al.
        Trends in gender and racial profiles of US Academic Radiology Faculty.
        J Am Coll Radiol. 2020; 17: 1337-1343
        • Association of American Medical Colleges (AAMC)
        “Report on Residents”.
        2021 (Accessed November 18, 2022)
        • Lungu E
        • Tang A
        • Trop I
        • et al.
        Current state of bibliometric research on the scholarly activity of academic radiologists.
        Acad Radiol. 2022; 29: 107-118
        • Alkhawtani RHM
        • Kwee TC
        • Kwee RM.
        Gender diversity among editorial boards of radiology-related journals.
        Clin Imaging. 2021; 75: 30-33
        • Martin JF
        • Hewett L
        • Gordon LL
        • et al.
        Do gender disparities among major radiological society award recipients exist?.
        Acad Radiol. 2020; 27: 987-995
        • Jutras M
        • Malekafzali L
        • Jung S
        • et al.
        National institutes of health: gender differences in radiology funding.
        Acad Radiol. 2020;
        • Liu S
        • Rosenkrantz AB.
        Gender variation in invited presenters at two national radiology specialty meetings.
        Curr Probl Diagn Radiol. 2021; 50: 472-476
        • Piper CL
        • Scheel JR
        • Lee CI
        • Forman HP.
        Gender trends in radiology authorship: a 35-year analysis.
        AJR Am J Roentgenol. 2016; 206: 3-7
        • Piper CL
        • Scheel JR
        • Lee CI
        • Forman HP.
        Representation of women on radiology journal editorial boards: a 40-year analysis.
        Acad Radiol. 2018; 25: 1640-1645
        • Weigel KS
        • Kubik-Huch RA
        • Gebhard C.
        Women in radiology: why is the pipeline still leaking and how can we plug it?.
        Acta Radiol. 2020; 61: 743-748
        • Hamidizadeh R
        • Jalal S
        • Pindiprolu B
        • et al.
        Influences for gender disparity in the radiology societies in North America.
        AJR Am J Roentgenol. 2018; 211: 831-838
        • Wenneras C
        • Wold A.
        Nepotism and sexism in peer-review.
        Nature. 1997; 387: 341-343
        • Moss-Racusin CA
        • Dovidio JF
        • et al.
        Science faculty's subtle gender biases favor male students.
        Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2012; 109: 16474-16479
        • Rabinowitz LG
        • Grinspan LT
        • Zylberberg HM
        • et al.
        Survey finds gender disparities impact both women mentors and mentees in gastroenterology.
        Am J Gastroenterol. 2021; 116: 1876-1884
        • Lin G
        • Murase JE
        • Murrell DF
        • Godoy LDC
        • Grant-Kels JM.
        The impact of gender in mentor-mentee success: Results from the Women's Dermatologic Society Mentorship Survey.
        Int J Womens Dermatol. 2021; 7: 398-402
        • Campbell JC
        • Yoon SC
        • Grimm LJ.
        Authorship and impact of gender-specific research in major radiology journals.
        J Am Coll Radiol. 2019; 16: 240-243
      1. American College of Radiology 2019. #HeForShe. Available at:, Accessed November 18, 2022

        • Spalluto LB
        • Arleo EK
        • Lewis MC
        • Oates ME
        • Macura KJ.
        Addressing needs of women radiologists: opportunities for practice leaders to facilitate change.
        Radiographics. 2018; 38: 1626-1637
        • Li S
        • Sun VH
        • Galla N
        • et al.
        Gender-based survey analysis of research and mentoring in interventional radiology.
        J Vasc Interv Radiol. 2022;
        • Jerome B
        • Fassiotto M
        • Kothary N.
        The need to mitigate unconscious bias to improve sponsorship opportunities for underrepresented faculty in academic radiology.
        AJR Am J Roentgenol. 2022; 218: 378-379
        • Horowitz JM
        • Kelahan LC
        • Deshmukh SD
        • et al.
        Modality interpretation among radiologists: opportunities for equality, wellness, and satisfaction.
        Acad Radiol. 2020; 27: 1338-1339
        • Ahmadi M
        • Khurshid K
        • Sanelli PC
        • et al.
        Influences for gender disparity in academic neuroradiology.
        AJNR Am J Neuroradiol. 2018; 39: 18-23
        • Pandit R
        • Minton LE
        • Smith EN
        • et al.
        Equal pay for equal work in radiology: expired excuses and solutions for change.
        Clin Imaging. 2022; 83: 93-98
        • Carr PL
        • Raj A
        • Kaplan SE
        • Terrin N
        • Breeze JL
        • Freund KM.
        Gender Differences in Academic Medicine: Retention, Rank, and Leadership Comparisons From the National Faculty Survey.
        Acad Med. 2018;
        • Caplar N
        • Tacchella S
        • Birrer S.
        Quantitative evaluation of gender bias in astronomical publications from citation counts.
        Nat Astron. 2017; 1