Education, Residents & Fellows|Articles in Press

Results of the 2021-2022 Survey of the American Alliance of Academic Chief Residents in Radiology

Published:February 20, 2023DOI:

      Rationale and Objectives

      An annual survey of chief residents in accredited North American radiology programs is conducted by the American Alliance of Academic Chief Residents in Radiology (A3CR

      Hoegger MJ, Shetty AS, Denner DR, et al. A Snapshot of Radiology Training During the Early COVID-19 Pandemic. Curr Probl Diagn Radiol. 2021 Sep-Oct;50(5):607-613. Epub 2020 Jun 29. PMID: 32690337; PMCID: PMC7322484.

      ). Special topics surveyed for the 2021-2022 academic year were procedural competency and virtual radiology education in the COVID-19 pandemic. The purpose of this study is to summarize the 2021-2022 A3CR2 chief resident survey.

      Materials and Methods

      An online survey was distributed to chief residents from 197 Accreditation Council on Graduate Medical Education–accredited radiology residency programs. Chief residents responded to questions regarding their individual procedural readiness and attitudes on virtual radiology education. A single chief resident from each residency answered programmatic questions including the use of virtual education, faculty coverage, and fellowship choices among their graduating classes.


      We received 110 individual responses from 61 programs, yielding a 31% program response rate. Although the majority (80%) of programs maintained purely in-person attending readout throughout the COVID 19 pandemic, only 13% of programs reported purely in-person didactics and 26% converted to all virtual didactics. The majority (53%-74%) of chief residents perceived virtual learning (in read-out, case conference, and didactic formats) to be less effective than in-person learning. One third of chief residents reported decreased procedural exposure during the pandemic, and 7%-9% of chief residents felt uncomfortable with basic procedures (basic fluoroscopy examinations, basic aspiration/drainage procedures, and superficial biopsy procedures). The number of programs with 24/7 attending coverage increased from 35% in 2019 to 49% in 2022. Body, neuroradiology, and interventional radiology were the most popular advanced training options among graduating radiology residents.


      The COVID-19 pandemic had a profound impact on radiology training, particularly in terms of virtual learning. These survey results suggest that although digital learning offers increased flexibility, most residents still prefer in-person readout and didactics. Despite this, virtual learning will likely remain a viable option as programs continue to evolve following the pandemic.

      Key Words

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