Original Investigation|Articles in Press

Percutaneous Treatment of Giant Hydatid Cysts and Cystobiliary Fistula Management

Published:April 28, 2023DOI:

      Rationale and Objectives

      To investigate the efficacy and safety of percutaneous treatment in cystic echinococcosis (CE) type 1 and 3a giant cysts (with at least one diameter>10 cm) according to the World Health Organization classification and to evaluate the management of complications, especially cystobiliary fistulas (CBFs).

      Materials and Methods

      This retrospective study included 66 patients with 68 CE1 and CE3a giant cysts treated with percutaneous catheterization between January 2016 and December 2021. The characteristics of the cysts, major and minor complications, time to catheter removal, and length of hospital stay were recorded.


      Among the 68 cysts, CBFs occurred in 35 (51.5%), cavity infections in 11 (16.1%), recollection in five (7.4%), and anaphylaxis in three (4.5%). There was no mortality. Biliary drainage was observed intraoperatively in 20 (29.4%) and only postoperatively in 15 (22.1%) of the 35 cysts with CBFs. A plastic biliary stent was placed in 18 (51.5%) of the 35 cysts with CBFs. The patients with CBFs had a longer hospital stay and time to catheter removal than those without fistulas (15.3 ± 10.9 vs. 6.1 ± 2.6 days and 32.7 ± 51.8 vs. 6.2 ± 3.1 days, respectively; P < 0.001). Of the patients who developed recollection, three were treated with secondary catheterization, and two underwent surgery. In total, three patients underwent surgery. The rate of clinical success was 95.4%. All cysts were followed up for an average of 19.1 (range, 12–60) months, and there was an average 88.8% reduction in cyst volume compared to the initial evaluation.


      CE1 and CE3a giant cysts can be treated effectively and safely with high clinical success using the catheterization technique. Contrary to what has previously been reported for these patients, the rate of CBFs is high, but these patients can successfully be treated with percutaneous drainage and/or endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography without the requirement of surgery.

      Key Words

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